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Mind and emotion: Children's understanding of the emotional consequences of beliefs and desires. British Journal of Developmental Psychology ;9 2 Toddlers' understanding of intentions, desires, and emotions: Explorations of the dark ages. Developing theories of intention: Social understanding and self control. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, ; Bartsch K, Wellman HM. Children talk about the mind. Three-year-olds' difficulty with false belief: The case for a conceptual deficit. British Journal of Developmental Psychology ;5 2 Gopnik A, Astington JW.follow
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Children's understanding of representational change and its relation to the understanding of false belief and the appearance-reality distinction. Child Development ;59 1 The relation between children's and mothers' mental state language and theory-of-mind understanding. Child Development ;73 3 How parenting style affects false belief understanding. Social Development ;8 3 Thomas R.
Schultz How to read minds in behaviour: A suggestion from a philosopher. Jonathan Bennett Planning and plan recognition from a computational point of view. Charles F. Schmidt and Stacy C.
Marsella Computation and mindreading in primate tactical deception. Richard W. Byrne and Andrew Whiten Playing with others' expectations: Teasing and mucking about in the first year. Vansudevi Reddy Jokes and lies: Children's understanding of intentional falsehood. Susan R. Leekam Reading minds or reading behaviour? Tests for a theory of mind in monkeys. Dorothy L. Cheney and Robert M. Seyfarth Visual behaviour as a window for reading the mind of others in primates. Juan C. Gomez Before mindreading: Attention, purposes and deception in birds? Carolyn A.
Ristau The ontogeny and phylogeny of joint visual attention.
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- Theory of Mind | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy;
George Butterworth Precursors to a theory of mind: Understanding attention in others. Simon Baron-Cohen Perceptual origins and conceptual evidence for theory of mind in apes and children. David Premack and Verena Dasser The emergence of metarepresentation in human ontogeny and primate phylogeny. Andrew Whiten and Richard W. Byrne The work of the imagination.
This demonstrates that these children understand that Sally holds a false belief about where the marble really is. In order to pass the test, children must be able to think about what Sally thinks and believes. Children who say that the marble is in the box, however, do not pass the test. They fail to demonstrate their own understanding that Sally's knowledge is different from their own. While theory of mind has historically been assessed using only false-belief tasks, current approaches involve measuring across a scale of developmental tasks.
Doing so better allows researchers to see how different theory of mind milestones emerge as a child ages. For example, the abilities to understand what other people desire emerges before the ability to understand hidden emotions that people may be feeling. While the emergence of a theory of mind tends to follow a fairly predictable sequence over the course of normal development, sometimes things go wrong. Theory of mind problems can have a range of serious complications.
When people struggle to understand mental states, social relationships and interactions can suffer. Researchers Simon Baron-Cohen and his colleagues have suggested that theory of mind problems are one of the hallmarks of autism. In a study, they looked at how children with autism performed on theory of mind tasks compared to children with Down syndrome as well as neurotypical children. They found that while around 80 percent of children who were neurotypical or who had Down syndrome were able to answer theory of mind questions correctly, only around 20 percent of children who had been diagnosed with autism were able to correctly answer such questions.
This problem with perspective-taking and understanding the thoughts of others is thought to contribute to the difficulty that those with Autism spectrum disorders have with some types of social interactions. Studies have also shown that people who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia often also demonstrate theory of mind deficits.
One meta-analysis involving more than 1, participants showed significant impairments in theory of mind among those with schizophrenia. These participants showed problems with both the ability to understand false beliefs as well as the ability to infer the intentions of others. Forming a theory of mind is critical in our ability to understand ourselves and others.
This ability to understand mental states allows people to introspect and consider their own thought and mental states.
Such self-awareness is important in the formation of a strong sense of self. Our social functioning also hinges on having a theory of mind. By being able to think about what other people are thinking, we can better understand others and predict what they might do next. Have you ever wondered what your personality type means? Sign up to get these answers, and more, delivered straight to your inbox. Age and gender dependent development of theory of mind in 6- to 8-years old children. Frontier in Human Neuroscience. DOI: Online usage of theory of mind continues to develop in late adolescence.
Theory of mind in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry. Sequential progressions in a theory of mind scale: Longitudinal perspectives. Child Dev. More in Theories.