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Polymer blends and alloys are used because of their properties such as durability, corrosion resistance, toughness, and design flexibility. Polymer blends and alloys owing to their advanced and better quality characteristics are one of the fastest growing segments of todays plastics industry. With continuous development and innovative plastics technologies, metals and glass are continuously being replaced by lighter materials.

For example, vehicle weight reduction is a key issue in the automotive industry today and auto manufacturers are continuously looking to replace metal car parts with lighter and economically efficient materials. Metal replacement is an important factor in the automotive industry owing to the advantages such as vehicle weight reduction, design flexibility, integration of parts, and reduction in total system costs.

Type : Journal Article. Volume : Issue : 1.

Polyimide - Polymer Blends and Alloys

Start Page : End Page : All titles : " reactor granule technology: A revolutionary approach to polymer blends and alloys ". The most common fibers are alumina, boron and silicon carbides used mostly because of their refractory properties.

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These fibers are also beginning to be used as reinforcements for plastics in composite structures. Their thermal stability, resistance to moisture, and corrosion resistance make them well suited to high temperature applications. Ceramic fibre reinforced polymers have been found to retain high performance mechanical properties after prolonged exposures to high temperature. However, the high cost of these composites prevent their use in bulk applications.

Engineering Ceramics Ceramics are defined as inorganic non-metallic materials processed or consolidated at high temperatures.

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Advanced ceramics are materials characterized by a fine structure composed of numerous crystal particles and where the main constituents are Silicon, Aluminum or Zirconia. They are distinguished from more traditional ceramics by the specialized properties and sophisticated processing requirements. The manufacture of advanced ceramics involve chemical or physical treatment of sands, milling of the raw materials, forming either through pressing, extrusion or injection molding, sintering and bonding of the final product.

Ceramics can be classified in several groups according to their chemical composition, oxides of alumina based ceramics are the most widely used with applications in the electronics and industrial machine sectors. Other oxides include beryllia and zirconia. In addition, Silicon Carbide and Nitrides are used in many thermal and wear resistance applications.

Other commonly used ceramics include oxide alloys, ceramic composites with metals and ticania ceramics.

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Advanced ceramics have attractive mechanical, electrical and thermal properties, some matching those of traditional metal and electromagnetic materials. These ceramics are commonly grouped into two classes, called engineering and fine ceramics. The fine ceramics are those used for their electronic and surface properties, while engineering ceramics are those used for their mechanical and structural applications.

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More than half of the world market for advanced ceramics is constituted by applications in the electronics sector, because of their outstanding thermal conductivity and dielectric strength table 3. Ceramics can accommodate the stringent requirements of higher frequency of operation, tighter environments and denser circuitry. For example, materials used in the design of integrated circuits require outstanding dielectric and thermal conductivity properties and dimensional stability, properties racily provided by ceramics. Ceramics serve also in structural applications at high temperatures.

Ceramics are beginning to be used as parts in diesel and otto engine components, in pumps designed for corrosive, high temperature environments and in the design of refractory environments because of their high thermal resistance and physical properties. For example, most structural ceramics have melting points well above the melting temperatures of common metals figure 3.

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  7. These applications make also use of the high wear ability, friction resistance, thermal stability and resistance of engineering ceramics. Silicon nitrides and carbides have a combination of very low coefficients of thermal expansion figure 3. Other uses for engineering ceramics include precision machined tools, corrosion and wear resistant equipment and heat resistant parts. Composites Composites differ from conventional materials in that a second component is added to improve performance or achieve properties not available from the original material.

    The second material is usually a reinforcing fiber added to enhance strength or stiffness; to increase flexural strength, to control thermal expansion or modify thermal or electronic properties. The greatest advantage of composite materials is the ability to tailor properties to meet specific applications. Composite materials using plastic, ceramic and metal matrices are already in use, applied to numerous structural, thermal and electronic applications. This report however only refers to polymer or ceramic composites. When compared with metals for structural applications, composites exhibit the following advantages:.

    On the other hand, composites are normally more expensive than metals, manufacturing processes are elaborate, time consuming and costly, and surface finishes require expensive treatments.

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    Polymer Composites consist of a polymer matrix with fiber reinforcements glass, carbon, aramids and more recently ceramic fibers added to improve the mechanical properties of the resulting material. Thermoset matrices dominate the composite industry. With thermosets, the reinforcements are added to the resins in their monomer form, which allows for ready dispersion and impregnation of the fibers; however, once manufactured the structure can not be modified. Engineering and high performance polymers are increasingly being used as matrices in composite systems. The use of thermoplastics over thermosets has several advantages:.

    However, thermoplastic composites are still more expensive than thermosets and have less dimensional stability. Today, practically all thermoplastics are available in glass reinforced form. Those used in largest volumes are polymides and ABS. There are several manufacturing techniques for polymer composite manufacture.

    For example, Pultrusion is a modern and increasingly popular manufacturing process for polymer composites shapes.

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    Through this process, a polymer matrix and a fiber are pulled through a die. The shapes can be tailored to existing structural elements beams, rods, and other forms, see Chapter 5. Glass fiber reinforced polyesters fiberglass are the most commonly used material in pultrusion. Ceramic composites are relatively new, but show considerable promise, in duplicating mechanical properties close to those for metals such as cast iron and with the added advantage of remarkable thermal and electric properties.

    Reinforcement with ceramic fibers seeks to increase the damage tolerance of the matrix and reduce the likelihood of failures. Although many reinforcement materials are under development, Si based fibers show the greatest potential and are already being introduced in the market. There is however the need for additional developmental work to surmount quality control difficulties and for increases in the service temperature of the composites MD, June Engineering polymers include at least six classes of plastics : i acetals polyoxymethylenes ; ii ABS acrilonitrile-butadiene-suyrene ; iii polycarbonates; iv polyphenylene ethers and oxides; v polyamides nylons ; and vi thermoplastic polyesthers.

    The importance of polymer alloys or blends as extensions of engineering polymers results from their use in three general areas of application: a modification of properties to suit particular end uses; in these cases, the alloy or blend is developed to fit the specific properties required by an application.

    For example, the alloys of PS and PPO where PS enables ease of processing while maintaining the high temperature resistance provided by PPO, in effect enabling the manufacture of complex shapes; b toughening of plastics through the blending in of elastomers , where an elastomer is added to improve the elastic properties of the blend while maintaining other mechanical properties.